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The Larger Catechism Ė Questions 151-160



Q. 151. What are those aggravations that make some sins more heinous than others?

A. Sins receive their aggravations,

1. From the persons offendinga; if they be of riper ageb, greater experience or gracec, eminent for professiond, giftse, placef, officeg, guides to othersh, and whose example is likely to be followed by othersi.


a Jer.2:8 b Job 32:7,9; Eccl.4:13 c 1 Kings 11:4,9 d 2 Sam.12:14; 1 Cor.5:1 e James 4:17 ; Luke 12:47 ,48 f Jer.5:4,5 g 2 Sam.12:7-9; Ezek.8:11,12 h Rom.2:17-24 i Gal.2:11-14


2. From the parties offendedk: if immediately against Godl, his attributesm, and worshipn; against Christ, and his graceo; the Holy Spiritp, his witnessq, and workingsr; against superiors, men of eminencys, and such as we stand especially related and engaged untot; against any of the saintsu, particularly weak brethrenx, the souls of them, or any othery, and the common good of all or manyz.


k Matt.21:38,39 l 1 Sam.2:25; Acts 5:4; Ps.51:4 m Rom.2:4 n Mal.1:8,14 o Heb.2:2,3; Heb.12:25 p Heb.10:29; Matt.12:31,32 q Eph.4:30 r Heb.6:4-6 s Jude 8; Num.12:8,9; Isa.3:5 t Prov.30:17; 2 Cor.12:15; Ps.55:12-15 u Zeph.2:8,10,11; Matt.18:6; 1 Cor.6:8; Rev.17:6 x 1 Cor.8:11,12; Rom.14:13,15,21 y Ezek.13:19; 1 Cor.8:12; Rev.18:12,13; Matt.23:15 z 1 Thess.2:15,16; Josh.22:20


3. From the nature and quality of the offencea: if it be against the express letter of the lawb, break many commandments, contain in it many sinsc: if not only conceived in the heart, but breaks forth in words and actionsd, scandalize otherse, and admit of no reparationf: if against meansg, merciesh, judgmentsi, light of naturek, conviction of consciencel, publick or private admonitionm, censures of the churchn, civil punishmentso; and our prayers, purposes, promisesp, vowsq, covenantsr, and engagements to God or mens: if done deliberatelyt, wilfullyu, presumptuouslyx, impudentlyy, boastinglyz, maliciouslya, frequentlyb, obstinatelyc, with delightd, continuancee, or relapsing after repentancef.


a Prov.6:30-35 b Ezra 9:10-12; 1 Kings 11:9,10 c Col.3:5; 1 Tim.6:10; Prov.5:8-12; Prov.6:32,33; Josh 7:21 d James 1:14,15; Matt.5:22; Micah 2:1 e Matt.18:7; Rom.2:23,24 f Deut.22:22 compared with verses 28,29; Prov.6:32-35 g Matt.11:21-24; John 15:22 h Isa.1:3; Deut.32:6 i Amos 4:8-11; Jer.5:3 k Rom.1:26,27 l Rom.1:32; Dan.5:22; Tit.3:10,11 m Prov.29:1 n Tit.3:10; Matt.18:17 o Prov.27:22; Prov.23:35 p Ps.78:34-37; Jer.2:20; Jer.42:5,6,20,21 q Eccl.5:4-6; Prov.20:25 r Lev.26:25 s Prov.2:17; Ezek.17:18,19 t Ps.36:4 u Jer.6:16 x Num.15:30; Exod.21:14 y Jer.3:3; Prov.7:13 z Ps.52:1 a 3 John 10 b Num.14:22 c Zech.7:11,12 d Prov.2:14 e Isa.57:17 f Jer.34:8-11; 2 Pet.2:20-22


4. From circumstances of timeg and placeh: if on the Lord's dayi, or other times of divine worshipk; or immediately beforel or after thesem, or other helps to prevent or remedy such miscarriagesn: if in public, or in the presence of others, who are thereby likely to be provoked or defiledo.


g 2 Kings 5:26 h Jer.7:10; Isa.26:10 i Ezek.23:37-39 k Isa.58:3-5; Num.25:6,7 l 1 Cor.11:20,21 m Jer.7:8-10; Prov.7:14,15; John 13:27,30 n Ezra 9:13,14 o 2 Sam.16:22; 1 Sam.2:22-24



Q. 152. What doth every sin deserve at the hands of God?

A. Every sin, even the least, being against the sovereigntya, goodnessb, and holiness of Godc, and against his righteous lawd, deserveth his wrath and cursee, both in this lifef, and that which is to comeg; and cannot be expiated but by the blood of Christh.


a James 2:10,11 b Exod.20:1,2 c Hab.1:13; Lev.10:3; Lev.11:44,45 d 1 John 3:4; Rom.7:12 e Eph.5:6; Gal.3:10 f Lam.3:39; Deut.28:15-68 g Matt.25:41 h Heb.9:22; 1 Pet.1:18,19



Q. 153. What doth God require of us, that we may escape his wrath and curse due to us by reason of the transgression of the law?

A. That we may escape the wrath and curse of God due to us by reason of the transgression of the law, he requireth of us repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christa, and the diligent use of the outward means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of his mediationb.


a Acts 20:21; Matt.3:7,8; Luke 13:3,5; Acts 16:30,31; John 3:16,18 b Prov.2:1-5; Prov.8:33-36



Q. 154. What are the outward means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of his mediation?
A. The outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicates to his church the benefits of his mediation, are all his ordinances; especially the word, sacraments, and prayer; all which are made effectual to the elect for their salvationa.


a Matt.28:19,20; Acts 2:42,46,47



Q. 155. How is the word made effectual to salvation?

A. The Spirit of God maketh the reading, but especially the preaching of the word, an effectual means of enlighteninga, convincing, and humbling sinnersb; of driving them out of themselves, and drawing them unto Christc; of conforming them to his imaged, and subduing them to his wille; of strengthening them against temptations and corruptionsf; of building them up in graceg, and establishing their hearts in holiness and comfort through faith unto salvationh.


a Neh.8:8; Acts 26:18; Ps.19:8 b 1 Cor.14:24,25; 2 Chron.34:18,19,26-28 c Acts 2:37,41; Acts 8:27,39 d 2 Cor.3:18 e 2 Cor.10:4-6; Rom.6:17 f Matt.4:4,7,10; Eph.6:16,17; Ps. 19:11; 1 Cor.10:11 g Acts 20:32; 2 Tim.3:15-17 h Rom.16:25; 1 Thess.3:2,10,11,13; Rom.15:4; Rom.10:13-17; Rom.1:16



Q. 156. Is the word of God to be read by all?

A. Although all are not to be permitted to read the word publickly to the congregationa, yet all sorts of people are bound to read it apart by themselvesb, and with their familiesc: to which end, the holy scriptures are to be translated out of the original into vulgar languagesd.


a Deut.31:9,11-13; Neh.8:2,3; Neh.9:3-5 b Deut.17:19; Rev.1:3; John 5:39; Isa.34:16 c Deut.6:6-9; Gen.18:17,19; Ps.78:5-7 d 1 Cor.14:6,9,11,12,15,16,24,27,28



Q. 157. How is the word of God to be read?

A. The holy scriptures are to be read with an high and reverent esteem of thema; with a firm persuasion that they are the very word of Godb, and that he only can enable us to understand themc; with desire to know, believe, and obey the will of God revealed in themd; with diligencee, and attention to the matter and scope of themf; with meditationg, applicationh, self-deniali, and prayerk.


a Ps.19:10; Neh.8:3-10; Exod.24:7; 2 Chron.34:27; Isa.66:2 b 2 Pet.1:19-21 c Luke 24:45; 2 Cor.3:13-16 d Deut.17:10,20 e Acts 17:11 f Acts 8:30,34; Luke 10:26-28 g Ps.1:2; Ps.119:97 h 2 Chron.34:21 i Prov.3:5; Deut.33:3 k Prov.2:1-6; Ps.119:18; Neh.7:6,8



Q. 158. By whom is the word of God to be preached?

A. The word of God is to be preached only by such as are sufficiently gifteda, and also duly approved and called to that officeb.


a 1 Tim.3:2,6; Eph.4:8,9-11; Hosea 4:6; Mal.2:7; 2 Cor.3:6 b Jer.14:15; Rom.10:15; Heb.5:4; 1 Cor.12:28,29; 1 Tim.3:10; 1 Tim.4:14; 1 Tim.5:22



Q. 159. How is the word of God to be preached by those that are called thereunto?

A. They that are called to labour in the ministry of the word, are to preach sound doctrinea, diligentlyb, in season and out of seasonc; plainlyd, not in the enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit, and of powere; faithfullyf, making known the whole counsel of Godg: wiselyh, applying themselves to the necessities and capacities of the hearersi; zealouslyk, with fervent love to Godl and the souls of his peoplem; sincerelyn, aiming at his gloryo, and their conversionp, edificationq, and salvationr.


a Tit.2:1,8 b Acts 18:25 c 2 Tim.4:2 d 1 Cor.14:19 e 1 Cor.2:4 f Jer.23:28; 1 Cor.4:1,2 g Acts 20:27 h Col.1:28; 2 Tim.2:15 i 1 Cor.3:2; Heb.5:12-14; Luke 12:42 k Acts18:25 l 2 Cor.5:13,14; Phil.1:15-17 m Col.4:12; 2 Cor.12:15 n 2 Cor.2:17; 2 Cor.4:2 o 1 Thess.2:4-6; John 7:18 p 1 Cor.9:19-22 q 2 Cor.12:19; Eph.4:12 r 1 Tim.4:16; Acts 26:16-18



Q. 160. What is required of those that hear the word preached?

A. It is required of those that hear the word preached that they attend upon it with diligencea, preparationb, and prayerc; examine what they hear by the scripturesd; receive the truth with faithe, lovef, meeknessg, and readiness of mindh, as the word of Godi; meditatek, and confer of itl; hide it in their heartsm, and bring forth the fruit of it in their livesn.


a Prov.8:34 b 1 Pet.2:1,2; Luke 8:18 c Ps.110:18; Eph.6:18,19 d Acts 17:11 e Heb.4:2 f 2 Thess.2:10 g James 1:21 h Acts 17:11 i 1 Thess.2:13 k Luke 9:44; Heb.2:1 l Luke 24:14; Deut.6:6,7 m Prov.2:1; Ps.119:11 n Luke 8:15; James 1:25



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