Christian and Hopeful -
By-ends and his companions - plain
of Ease - Lucre-hill - Demas - the
River of Life - Vain - Confidence - Giant
Despair - the Pilgrims beaten - the Dungeon - the Key of Promise
I saw in my dream that CHRISTIAN went not forth alone; for there
was one whose name was HOPEFUL (being so made by the beholding of CHRISTIAN
and FAITHFUL, in their words and behaviour, in their sufferings at the
fair), who joined himself unto him;
and entering into a brotherly covenant, told him
that he would be his companion. Thus one died to bear testimony to the
truth, and another rises out of his ashes to be a companion with CHRISTIAN
in his pilgrimage. This HOPEFUL also told CHRISTIAN that there were many
more of the men in the fair that would take their time and follow after.
I saw that,
quickly after they were got out of the fair, they overtook one that was
going before them, whose name was BY-ENDS; So they said to him, "What
countryman, sir? and how far go you this way?" He told them that he
came from the town of
he was going to the
told them not his name).
Chr. "From Fairspeech!" said CHRISTIAN; "is there
any that be good live there?"
he speaketh fair, believe him not: for there are seven abominations
in his heart." Proverbs 26:25
By-ends. "Yes," said BY-ENDS,
Chr. "Pray, sir, what may I call you?" said CHRISTIAN.
By-ends. I am a stranger to you, and you to me: if you be going this
way, I shall be glad of your company: if not, I must be content.
Chr. "This town of
said CHRISTIAN, "I have heard of; and, as I remember, they say it is a
By-ends. Yes, I will assure you that it is; and I have very many rich
Chr. Pray who are your kindred there, if a man may be so bold?
By-ends. Almost the whole town: and in particular, my Lord
TURN-ABOUT; my Lord TIME-SERVER; my Lord FAIRSPEECH (from whose ancestors
that town first took its name); also Mr. SMOOTH-MAN; Mr. FACING-BOTH-WAYS;
Mr. ANY-THING; and the parson of our parish, Mr. TWO-TONGUES, was my
mother's own brother by father's side. And to tell you the truth, I am
become a gentleman of good quality; yet my great-grandfather was but a
waterman, looking one way and rowing another-- and I got most of my estate
by the same occupation.
Chr. Are you a married man?
By-ends. Yes; and my wife is a very virtuous woman – the daughter
of a virtuous woman. She is my Lady FEIGNING'S daughter; therefore she came
of a very honourable family, and is arrived to such a pitch of breeding,
that she knows how to carry it to all, even to prince and peasant. 'Tis
true, we somewhat differ in religion from those of the stricter sort; yet
but in two small points: First, we never strive against wind and tide;
secondly, we are always most zealous when religion goes in his silver
slippers – we love much to walk with him in the street if the sun shines,
and the people applaud it.
Then CHRISTIAN stepped a little aside to his
fellow HOPEFUL, saying, "It runs in my mind that this is one BY-ENDS,
of Fairspeech and if it be he, we have as very a knave in our company as
dwells in all these parts." Then said HOPEFUL, "Ask him; methinks
he should not be ashamed of his name." So CHRISTIAN came up with him
again, and said, "Sir, you talk as if you knew something more than all
the world doth; and if I take not my mark amiss, I deem I have half a guess
of you: Is not your name Mr. BY-ENDS, of Fairspeech?"
By-ends. That is not my name: but indeed it is a nickname that is
given me by some that cannot abide me: and I must be content to bear it as a
reproach, as other good men have borne theirs before me.
Chr. But did you never give an occasion to men to call you by
By-ends. Never, never! the worst that ever I did to give them an
occasion to give me this name was, that I had always the luck to jump in my
judgment with the present way of the times, whatever it was, and my chance
was to gain thereby; but if things are thus cast upon me, let me count them
a blessing, but let not the malicious load me therefore with reproach.
Chr. I thought indeed that you were the man that I had heard of; and
to tell you what I think, I fear this name belongs to you more properly than
you are willing we should think it doth.
By-ends. Well, if you will thus imagine, I cannot help it. You shall
find me a fair company-keeper, if you will still admit me your associate.
Chr. If you will go with us, you must go against wind and tide,
the which, I perceive, is against your opinion; you must also own religion
in his rags as well as when in his silver slippers; and stand by him too
when bound in irons, as well as when he walks the streets with applause.
By-ends. You must not impose nor lord it over my faith; leave me to
my liberty, and let me go with you.
Chr. Not a step farther, unless you will do, in what I propound,
By-ends. Then said BY-ENDS, "I shall never desert my old
principles, since they are harmless and profitable. If I may not go with
you, I must do as I did before you overtook me: even go by myself, until
some overtake me that will be glad of my company."
Now I saw in my dream that CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL
forsook him, and kept their distance before him; but one of them looking
back, saw three men following Mr. BY-ENDS; and behold, as they came up with
him, he made them a very low bow, and they also gave him a compliment. The
men's names were, Mr. HOLD-THE-WORLD, Mr. MONEY-LOVE, and Mr. SAVE-ALL –
men that Mr. BY-ENDS had formerly been acquainted with; for in their
minority they were schoolfellows, and were taught by one Mr. GRIPEMAN, a
schoolmaster in Love-gain, which is a market town in the county of Coveting,
in the north. This schoolmaster taught them the art of getting, either by
violence, fraud, flattery, lying, or by putting on a guise of religion; and
these four gentlemen had attained much of the art of their master, so that
they could each of them have kept such a school themselves.
Well, when they had, as I said, thus saluted
each other, Mr. MONEY-LOVE said to Mr. BY-ENDS, "Who are they upon the
road before us?" For CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL were yet within view.
By-ends. They are a couple of far countrymen, that, in their mode,
are going on pilgrimage.
Money-love. Alas! why did they not stay, that we might have had their
good company; for they, and we, and you, sir, I hope, are all going on a
By-ends. We are so, indeed; but the men before us are so rigid, and
love so much their own notions, and do also so lightly esteem the opinions
of others, that even if a man be never so godly, yet, if he jumps not with
them in all things, they thrust him quite out of their company.
Mr. Save-all. That's bad; but we read of some that are righteous
overmuch, and such men's rigidness prevails with them to judge and condemn
all but themselves. But, I pray, what and how many were the things wherein
By-ends. Why, they, after their headstrong manner, conclude that it
is their duty to rush on their journey all weathers; and I am for waiting
for wind and tide. They are for hazarding all for God at a clap; and I am
for taking all advantages to secure my life and estate. They are for holding
their notions, though all other men be against them; but I am for religion
in and so far as the times and my safety will bear it. They are for religion
when in rags and contempt; but I am for him when he walks in his golden
slippers in the sunshine, and with applause.
Mr. Hold-the-World. Aye, and hold you there still, good Mr. BY-ENDS;
for, for my part, I can count him but a fool, that, having the liberty to
keep what he has, shall be so unwise as to lose it. Let us be wise as
serpents; 'tis best to make hay when the sun shines: you see how the bee
lies still all winter, and bestirs her only when she can have profit with
pleasure. God sends sometimes rain, and sometimes sunshine; if they be such
fools to go through the first, yet let us be content to take fair weather
along with us. For my part, I like that religion best that will stand with
the security of God's good blessings unto us; for who can imagine, that is
ruled by his reason, since God has bestowed upon us the good things of this
life, but that he would have us keep them for his sake? Abraham and Solomon
grew rich in religion. And Job says, "That a good man shall lay up gold
as dust." But he must not be such as the men before us, if they be as
you have described them.
Mr. Save-all. I think that we are all agreed in this matter; and therefore
there need be no more words about it.
Mr. Money-love. No, there need be no more words about
this matter indeed; for he that believes neither Scripture nor reason (and
you see we have both on our side), neither knows his own liberty nor seeks
his own safety.
Mr. By-ends. My brethren, we are, as you see, going all on pilgrimage;
and for our better diversion from things that are bad, give me leave to
propound unto you this question:
Suppose a man – a minister, or a tradesman,
– should have an advantage lie before him to get the good blessings of
this life; yet so as that he can by no means come by them except – in
appearance at least – he becomes extraordinarily zealous in some points of
religion that he meddled not with before: may he not use this means to
attain his end, and yet be a right honest man?
Mr. Money-love. I see the bottom of your question; and,
with these gentlemen's good leave, I will endeavour to shape you an answer.
And first, to speak to your question as it concerns a minister himself:
Suppose a minister, a worthy man, possessed but of a very small benefice,
and has in his eye a greater, more fat and plump by far; he has also, now an
opportunity of getting of it; yet so as by being more studious, by preaching
more frequently and zealously, and because the temper of the people requires
it, by altering of some of his principles; for my part, I see no reason but
a man may do this – provided he has a call. Aye, and more a great deal
besides, and yet be an honest man. For why?
His desire of a greater benefice is lawful (this cannot be contradicted),
since 'tis set before him by
then, he may get it if he can, making no question, for conscience' sake.
Besides, his desire after that benefice makes him more studious, a more
zealous preacher, and so on; and so makes him a better man. Yea, makes him
better improve his parts, which is according to the mind of God.
Now, as for his complying with the temper of his people by dissenting – to
serve them – some of his principles, this argues, 1st, that he is of a
self-denying temper; 2nd, of a sweet and willing deportment; 3rd, and so
more fit for the ministerial function.
4. I conclude then, that a minister that changes a small for a great, should
not for so doing be judged as covetous; but rather, since he is improved in
his parts and industry thereby, be counted as one that pursues his call, and
the opportunity put into his hand to do good.
And now to the second part of the question,
which concerns the tradesman you mentioned: Suppose such one to have but a
poor employ in the world, but by becoming religious he may mend his market,
perhaps get a rich wife, or more and far better customers to his shop –
for my part, I see no reason but that this may be lawfully done. For why?
To become religious is a virtue, by what means soever a man becomes so.
2. Nor is it unlawful to get a rich wife, or more custom to my shop.
3. Besides, the man that gets these by becoming religious, gets that which
is good of them that are good, by becoming good himself; so, then, here is a
good wife, and good customers, and good gain, and all these by becoming
religious, which is good. Therefore, to become religious, to get all these,
is a good and profitable design.
This answer, thus made by this Mr. MONEY-LOVE to
Mr. BY-ENDS' question, was highly applauded by them all; therefore they
concluded upon the whole, that it was most wholesome and advantageous. And
because, as they thought, no man was able to contradict it; and because
CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL were yet within call, they joyfully agreed to assault
them with the question as soon as they overtook them, and the rather because
they had opposed Mr. BY-ENDS before. So they called after them; and they
stopped, and stood still till they came up to them. But they concluded as
they went, that not Mr. BY-ENDS, but old Mr. HOLD-THE-WORLD, should propound
the question to them; because, as they supposed, their answer to him would
be without the remainder of that heat that was kindled betwixt Mr. BY-ENDS
and them at their parting a little before.
So they came up to each other; and after a short
salutation, Mr. HOLD-THE-WORLD propounded the question to CHRISTIAN and his
fellow, and bid them to answer if they could.
Chr. Then said CHRISTIAN, "Even a babe in religion may answer
ten thousand such questions. For if it be unlawful to follow Christ for
loaves, as it is:
these things Jesus went over the sea of Galilee, which is the
. And a great
multitude followed him, because they saw his miracles which he did on them
that were diseased. And Jesus went up into a mountain, and there he sat with
his disciples. And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh. When Jesus
then lifted up his eyes, and saw a great company come unto him, he
saith unto Philip, Whence shall we buy bread, that these may eat? And this
he said to prove him: for he himself knew what he would do. Philip answered
him, Two hundred pennyworth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every
one of them may take a little.
of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, saith unto him, There is a
lad here, which hath five barley loaves, and two small fishes: but what are
they among so many? And Jesus said, Make the men sit down. Now there was
much grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand.
And Jesus took the loaves; and when he had given thanks, he distributed to
the disciples, and the disciples to them that were set down; and likewise of
the fishes as much as they would. When they were filled, he said unto his
disciples, Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost.
Therefore they gathered them together, and filled twelve baskets with
the fragments of the five barley loaves, which remained over and above unto
them that had eaten.
Then those men, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, This is
of a truth that prophet that should come into the world. The day following,
when the people which stood on the other side of the sea saw that there was
none other boat there, save that one whereinto his disciples were entered,
and that Jesus went not with his disciples into the boat, but that
his disciples were gone away alone; (Howbeit there came other boats from
Tiberias nigh unto the place where they did eat bread, after that the Lord
had given thanks:) When the people therefore saw that Jesus was not there,
neither his disciples, they also took shipping, and came to Capernaum,
seeking for Jesus. And when they had found him on the other side of the sea,
they said unto him, Rabbi, when camest thou hither?
answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye seek me, not
because ye saw the miracles, but because ye did eat of the loaves, and were
filled. Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which
endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you:
for him hath God the Father sealed. Then said they unto him, What shall we
do, that we might work the works of God? Jesus answered and said unto them,
This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent. They said
therefore unto him, What sign shewest thou then, that we may see, and
believe thee? what dost thou work? Our fathers did eat manna in the desert;
as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat. Then Jesus said
unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread
from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven. For the
bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the
said they unto him, Lord, evermore give us this bread. And Jesus said unto
them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and
he that believeth on me shall never thirst. But I said unto you, That ye
also have seen me, and believe not. All that the Father giveth me shall come
to me; and him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out. For I came down
from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me. And
this is the Father's will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath
given me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last
day. And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth
the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life: and I will raise
him up at the last day. The Jews then murmured at him, because he said, I am
the bread which came down from heaven.
they said, Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we
know? how is it then that he saith, I came down from heaven? Jesus therefore
answered and said unto them, Murmur not among yourselves. No man can come to
me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up
at the last day. It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught
of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father,
cometh unto me. Not that any man hath seen the Father, save he which is of
God, he hath seen the Father. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that
believeth on me hath everlasting life. I am that bread of life. Your fathers
did eat manna in the wilderness, and are dead.
is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and
not die. I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat
of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my
flesh, which I will give for the life of the world. The Jews therefore
strove among themselves, saying, How can this man give us his flesh
to eat? Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye
eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in
you. Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life; and I
will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood
is drink indeed. He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in
me, and I in him. As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the
Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me. This is that bread
which came down from heaven: not as your fathers did eat manna, and are
dead: he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever. These things said he
in the synagogue, as he taught in
. Many therefore of
his disciples, when they had heard this, said, This is an hard
saying; who can hear it?" John 6:1-60
how much more abominable is it to make of him
and religion a stalking-horse to get and enjoy the world! nor do we find any
other than heathens, hypocrites, devils, and witches, that are of this
"1. Heathens, for when Hamor and Shechem
had a mind to the daughter and cattle of Jacob, and saw that there were no
ways for them to come at them, but by becoming circumcised, they say to
their companions: 'If every male of us be circumcised, as they are
circumcised, shall not their cattle, and their substance, and every beast of
theirs be ours?' Their daughters and their cattle were that which they
sought to obtain; and their religion the stalking-horse they made use of to
come at them. Read the whole story.
Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city, and communed
with the men of their city, saying, These men are peaceable with us;
therefore let them dwell in the land, and trade therein; for the land,
behold, it is large enough for them; let us take their daughters to
us for wives, and let us give them our daughters. Only herein will the men
consent unto us for to dwell with us, to be one people, if every male among
us be circumcised, as they are circumcised. Shall not their
cattle and their substance and every beast of theirs be ours? only
let us consent unto them, and they will dwell with us." Genesis
"2. The hypocritical Pharisees were also of
this religion; long prayers were their pretence, but to get widows' houses
were their intent; and greater damnation from God was their judgment.
of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in
the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at
feasts; Which devour widows' houses, and for a shew make long prayers: the
same shall receive greater damnation." Luke 20:46, 47
"3. Judas the devil was also of this
religion; he was religious for the bag, that he might be possessed of what
was therein; but he was lost, cast away, and the very son of perdition.
"4. Simon the witch was of this religion
too; for he would have had the Holy Ghost, that he might have got money
therewith and his sentence from Peter's mouth was according.
Give me also this power, that on whomsoever I lay hands, he may receive the
Holy Ghost. But Peter said unto him, Thy money perish with thee, because
thou hast thought that the gift of God may be purchased with money. Thou
hast neither part nor lot in this matter: for thy heart is not right in the
sight of God. Repent therefore of this thy wickedness, and pray God, if
perhaps the thought of thine heart may be forgiven thee." Acts 8:19-22
"5. Neither will it out of my mind, but
that the man that takes up religion for the world will throw away religion
for the world; for so surely as Judas designed the world in becoming
religious, so surely did he also sell religion and his Master for the same.
To answer the question more affirmatively, as I perceive you have done, and
to accept as authentic such answer, is both heathenish, hypocritical, and
devilish; and your reward will be according to your works."
Then they stood
staring one upon another, but had not wherewith to answer CHRISTIAN. HOPEFUL
also approved of the soundness of CHRISTIAN'S answer; so there was a great
silence among them. Mr. BY-ENDS and his company also staggered, and kept
behind, that CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL might outgo them. Then said CHRISTIAN to
his fellow, "If these men cannot stand before the sentence of men, what
will they do with the sentence of God? and if they are mute when dealt with
by vessels of clay, what will they do when they shall be rebuked by the
flames of a devouring fire?"
Pilgrim's Progress - plain
of Ease - Lucre-hill - Demas
Pilgrim's Progress - Contents